ABCD学院 メールマガジン 2016年2月号

Business: English Skills
最新の英文記事を一つピックアップ!解説と単語の説明付き


こんにちは、今月のB項を担当させていただく粕川です。

今回も英文記事を使い、単語と文法の解説を行いたいと思います。

When it comes to taking the temperature and talking about it, Japanese is sensational

When winter is running out of steam but spring is not yet willing to come, this results in a series of temperature highs and lows known in Japan as 三寒四温 (sankan shion), an alternation of three cold (三寒) and four warm (四温) days. Meteorologically speaking, this phenomenon is much more pronounced on the Asian continent, where it occurs in the middle of winter rather than toward its dirty end. That the expression is originally an import from the mainland may also explain why, on closer inspection, there seems to be something odd about the two temperature words it contains.

In order to understand this, we need to appreciate that Japanese is quite “sensational” when it comes to temperatures. For instance, where in English something is just “cold,” in Japanese it’s either 寒い (samui) or 冷たい (tsumetai). The choice between the two is based on a number of conditions, including whether one specific part of the body is concerned or the body as a whole, and whether something is tactile or nontactile. Accordingly, when it’s cold outside, it’s 外が寒い (soto ga samui), but the cold hands that result from this condition are described as 手が冷たい (te ga tsumetai).

Samui is prototypically used when talking about oneself, whereas other people have to be described as 寒そう (samusō, “looking as though they feel cold”). The logic behind this is that since feeling cold is a subjective state of mind, one cannot know for sure — or so Japanese grammar insists — if another person is really cold or they just look like they are freezing to death while in fact being quite warm on the inside. In comparison to this, tsumetai is much more objective. It describes low-temperature liquids, dishes, limbs and other tangible things, no matter if they belong to the speaker or to others.

(Japan Times) 

KEYWORDS

Phenomenon 現象、事象

Sensational 世間をあっと言わせるような

Tactile 触知できる

Tangible 実体的な・有形の

Mainland 本土(付近の島や半島と区別して).


もうすぐ三月とはいえ、まだまだ寒い日が続きそうな今日この頃にぴったりな英文記事ですね! それでは、解説に入りたいと思います。

副詞(Adverb)・形容詞(Adjective)の例外

形容詞も副詞も、基本的に修飾語の働きをします。形容詞は名詞や代名詞を修飾し、副詞は動詞、形容詞、また他の副詞を修飾すると言われています。

 She sings beautifully. “Sings”の動詞を”beautifully” 副詞が修飾しています。

I hope you had an amazing day. “Day”は名詞なので、この場合は形容詞の“amazing”が修飾します。

“Feel, taste, smell, sound, look”.

こちらの動詞の類似点にお気づきでしょうか?実は全て、五感に関する動詞なのです。英文記事からの例ならば、”looking as though they feel cold” が挙げられます。

Feelは動詞なのにも関わらず、形容詞のcoldが修飾しているのに着目して頂きたいです。

五感動詞の場合、副詞ではなく形容詞が後にくる決まりとなっています。

 

なので、

I feel amazingly after taking a shower.

You look greatly today!

The plan sounds fantastically.

は間違いで、

I feel amazing after taking a shower.

You look great today!

The plan sounds fantastic.

が文法的に合っています。これからも基礎をしっかり復習して、頑張りましょう!

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